Art O'Neill Walk

The Art OíNeill Walk 2007

Itís always exciting making oneís way to Dublin Castle for the Art OíNeill Walk. What adds to the anticipation is wondering how many are going to turn up on the night since this is a no fee/no pre-entry event. Sometimes the plans made after too much Christmas pudding and turkey fade away as the night of the event approaches. In 1998, before the walk was promoted on the internet, only four people turned up. Since then things have changed somewhat. Indeed, on this Friday night, 5th January, 2007, four hundred and fifteen years after the escape of Red Hugh OíDonnell and Art and Henry OíNeill in 1592, over sixty walkers turned up for the challenge. The challenge consists of forty-six kilometers by road and track and 18 kilometers over open mountain, with half the walk taking place in darkness.

Without any fanfare (we didnít want to awaken Queen Elizabethís guards) the long column of widely varying shapes and ages headed off into the night as the midnight hour arrived. Very soon a few runners from Belfast careered into the night, leaving the main body of walkers in wonderment at their fitness. Up Patrick Street, out to Haroldís Cross, on to Templeogue and past the Old Mill in Tallaght, the group soon found itself without street lights, in outer darkness, as the Dublin Hills were reached. Passing by the Kilbride Army Camp at 3.30am, a welcome cup of soup and a slice of cake was generously supplied by the small group of regular volunteers from the Wayfarers Hillwalking Club, led by Grace Dobson. Pat Lynch, who was to provide backup throughout the length of the walk, and also other Wayfarers, had transported carloads of backpacks to this point. With a quick change into boots and head torches, the journey through fields and along country roads to Ballynultagh Gap began. Very soon, however, it started to rain and would continue for the next three or four hours. Itís at Ballynultagh Gap that the first mountain, Black Hill, is tackled. Up till now the hikers had been walking at their own individual paces without concerning themselves about whether they were in touch with the group. However, at Ballynultagh Gap nobody seemed to want to wander up Black Hill alone and around to Billy Byrneís Gap in mist and darkness. They gathered here waiting for someone with a compass to appear, looking as if he knew how to use it. One fast-footed pair nevertheless headed off ahead of the group and soon disappeared into the murky night. Unfortunately, lacking a compass and only equipped with Ďa good sense of directionĎ, they soon found themselves sitting on the slopes below Billy Byrneís Gap waiting for daylight so that they could find out where they were! Fortunately, the main group of fifty-eight (two had fallen behind at Kilbride) spotted their head torches as they contoured, using a compass, around to the Gap and all were united again. Daylight came on the descent to the hamlet of Glenbride, and the tiring walkers stretched out in a long line as they made their way downwards through broken ground and rough heather.

It was 9.30am at Ballinagee Bridge and the forty kilometer point had been reached. It was time for a rest, food and drink and a change of socks, etc. Unfortunately, two walkers withdrew at this point due to blisters and knee problems. The other two who had fallen behind at Kilbride were also out of the equation. With a bright day and pleasant weather, everyone now proceeded at their own pace up along the Glenreemore Brook to Artís plaque and the final climb of the day to Artís Cross. The biggest group at this stage was the slowest moving, but gradually they made their way at a relaxed pace over to Three Lakes, down the Avonbeg river and along Table Track to Baravore in Glenmalure. Many withdrew at this stage (formerly the finishing place) while others made their way to the finish at Greenane (64k) and the remnants of Fiach MacHugh OíByrnes fortress. The runners from Belfast finished around 2pm while the earliest walkers were in Greenane after 3pm. Most would have finished between 4pm and 5pm. Once again, Pat Lynch of the Wayfarers provided transport from the finish to anyone who required a lift to the train in Rathdrum. As a long-distance walker himself, only he could appreciate small mercies like this at the end of a long trek. The next train to Dublin wasnít until 7.30pm, but those who made their way to Rathdrum mixed with the Saturday afternoon cafť society as they enjoyed a well-deserved meal and a pint or two in the salubrious environs of that town.

Fifty-seven of the starters got at least as far as Baravore, the finishing place until this year, while about a dozen from that group went all the way to Greenane at sixty-four kilometers. Everyone who made a serious effort to do his or her best came away from the event very pleased to have participated in this commemoration of the journey of the two Irish Princes to the valley of Glenmalure (Henry OĎNeill parted from their company in Dublin), although Art OíNeill unfortunately died of exposure and exhaustion in the valley below the present-day Artís Cross. This walk has a lot of road and track in it and half of it happens in darkness. Hillwalkers normally donít like that arrangement of terrains, but the strangeness and unusual nature of the Walk, allied with the dramatic story it commemorates, makes it a journey everyone remembers with satisfaction, especially those who joined us from far-flung places like Sweden, Germany and the Sultanate of Oman.

Hereís to next year!



Report on Walks 2005

There were two walks this year, a harder and a "relaxed".

Harder  Despite a severe weather warning from Met Eireann of heavy rain with accompanying 70-80mph winds, especially in the East of the country, the annual Art O'Neill Walk took place as usual on Friday night, 7th January, 2005. After warning those who turned up at midnight outside Dublin Castle that the Walk was 'officially' off due to the expected severe weather conditions, 16 hardy souls (all those who turned up) walked into the night and out to the Dublin hills. The plan was to walk as far as Ballynultagh Gap (30k) and assess the weather at that stage so as to see if it was safe to enter the more rugged (and possibly dangerous) terrain of the higher mountainous regions. The winds as we approached Stone Cross at Ballinascorney gave us a taste of what might lie ahead of us. If the wind was so strong now at low level what might it be around Black Hill and Billy Byrne's Gap as we contoured our way around to the latter location. At Ballynultagh it was deemed safe to continue on, so the already tiring group made their way along the rocky track to the small cairn atop Black Hill. It was at this stage that I'm sure I heard Someone say 'Gotcha!', for, just as as we arrived, a dreadful blast of wind and a sleet-laden blizzard came upon us with a vengeance. Being buffeted about in zero visibility and constantly having to wipe the sleet off the compass, it was difficult to navigate with any great accuracy, but we did manage to steer a course around to the Gap and arrived as the first rays of light were lighting up the cold morning sky. It was at the Gap that Someone seemed to say 'Ok, folks, you did well. Your courage didn't let you down' ......and the wind and the rain stopped as if like magic. Tiredness was now evident amongst some of the group, and some began to trail off at the back as we descended to Glenbride. It was then down through some fields to Ballinagee bridge, where some of the group had friends to ply them with soup and other refreshments. Two participants decided to withdraw at this stage (sore feet and knees). After a break of about 30 minutes (it was now bitterly cold) it was decided to split the group into two: one group of seven moving faster into the remaining section of the Walk, and the other group of seven taking a more leisurely approach. Moving up the Glenreemore brook to Art's grave, the final ascent of the day to art's Cross followed. It was then on to Three Lakes (both of them), down to the Avonbeg river and finally to the finish at Baravore in Glenmalure, where warm cars and welcoming supporters, like veteran long-distance walker Pat Lynch of the Wayfarers, made it all seem worthwhile. My compliments to all those who participated in this year's Walk, who showed responsibility and respect for others by preparing properly for the event and making the trek such a success.

Tom Milligan

Above Michael Neary and Tom Milligan at Art's Plaque

Left "The Final Peak" -- Art's Cross

Photos by Michael Neary

Relaxed Version  The Art O'Neill Walk (Relaxed Version) took place at midnight on Friday night, 14th January, 2005. There were eleven participants, consisting mostly of scuba-divers with a few walkers thrown in. The route and starting time were the same as the previous week's outing, but this time relaxation and enjoyment were the key words. All backpacks were transported to Kilbride where soup and Christmas cake were provided by Wayfarers Paddy Hackett, Grace and Pat. Pat Lynch (Wayfarer) also assisted on the night/morning/afternoon, and met the group at key points all along the route and providing transport home at the end. Two scuba divers and one walker withdrew at the Kilbride soup-kitchen, leaving six scuba-divers and two hikers to head off into the hills at Ballynultagh Gap. At Ballinagee bridge the final dropout occurred when a scuba-diver decided not to continue due to severe chafing from his flippers. This left the leader with two hikers and four scuba-divers (all first-timers). At 2.30pm in the afternoon the group reached Baravore, feeling a little washed-out and all-at-sea, but nevertheless in very cheerful form because their accomplishment. This outing was certainly the most enjoyable one that I've ever led due to the cheerfulness of the group who, despite some unusual and suspect gear, maintained a great sense of teamwork and mutual support. A memorable occasion for all (especially the memory of one scuba-diver lady as she massaged her face with moisturizing cream and her lips with balm as we were descending from Billy Byrne's Gap!). Here's to next year!

Report on Walk 2004

The 2004 Art O'Neill Walk, in commemoration of the escape of Art O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell on the 6th January 1592, took place in conditions which proved to be much better than that which the forecasts had suggested. Undoubtedly many had stayed away because of the dire predictions. The 45 participants who headed off into the night from Dublin Castle enjoyed moderately cool conditions with NO rain throughout the night and the following day. Although there was much cloud in the skies the full moon managed to pierce through the blanket and provide sufficient light to enable most people to dispense with head torches. The landscape could be discerned fairly well and this made for a more enjoyable occasion. Outside the Kilbride Army Camp (at 3.30am) soup and refreshments were voluntarily (and freely) provided by Paddy Hegarty and his merry band of chefs. This provided for a welcome moment to change footwear and prepare for the journey ahead. At this point three walkers availed of a lift back to town in the car of Milo Kane, who had also transported many of the backpacks to this point in the Walk. Previously one person withdrew around Bohernabreena when his voice could be heard exclaiming from way behind the group "I'm finished. I'm going back." The pace of the walking from the Castle can be a little bit too enthusiastic for many! At Ballinagee Bridge, at 9am, Richard More-O'Ferrrall had set up 'Art's Kitchen' and plied us all with bowls of porridge, in aid of Dublin Wicklow Mountain Rescue. One person withdrew at this point (Richard's porridge is under suspicion!). Most people finished the Walk, despite sore limbs and drooping eyelids, around 2pm, with 4 Donegal lads finally arriving at Baravore around 3pm - and still not a drop of rain.

Tom Milligan

Report on Walk 2003

At midnight on a cool Friday night on January 10th, 57 walkers from various hillwalking clubs around Ireland headed off on the annual Art O'Neill Walk in commemoration of the escape of Art O'Neill,  Henry O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell from Dublin Castle in 1592.  The crisp, dry conditions were perfect for walking and a very pleasant journey was made by all through the city streets and suburbs until the Kilbride Army Camp at Shankill was reached at around 3am.  Hot soup provided by members of the Wayfarers Hillwalking Club was enthusiastically welcomed by the slowly tiring group as they changed into their boots.  

Unfortunately, just before this break we had our first casualties.  One lady hurt her knee when she tripped and fell around Boherbreena and had to summon her husband for transport home.  Another trio of gentlemen withdrew at this point also when their bodies told them that discretion was the better part of valour.  Proceeding down through various fields under the guidance of our leader, Joe Gilvarry, we crossed Ballysmuttan Bridge and soon found ourselves at Ballynultagh Gap at 6am where we made our entry into the heart of the snow-covered Wicklow Hills. 

Billy Byrne's Gap At Art's Plaque On to Art's Cross Art's Kitchen

As we reached Billy Byrne's Gap the dawn was beginning to break and the group paused for a few minutes to enjoy the golden glow of a rising winter sun.  An hour or so later we enjoyed a hearty 'porridge and tea' breakfast organised by the ever cheerful host of Jigsaw Cottage, Richard More-O'Ferrall.  Donations from the walkers, in aid of Mountain Rescue, amounting to more than Ä220 were gratefully accepted on their behalf by Richard and soon we were on our way up the Glenreemore Brook to Art's grave.  The condition of the group was visibly deteriorating at this stage and several speedier and fitter walkers disappeared onto the higher hills.  However, with a little coaxing everyone managed to make the steep ascent  to Art's Cross on the hilltop overlooking the grave.  

From there on it was just a matter of trudging one's way through the heavy snow down to the Avonbeg river and onto Table Track which led a sore and weary party to the finish at Baravore car park in Glenmalure.  The average finishing time was between 1.30pm and 2pm.  Almost everyone had transport arranged for themselves at this point, but the usual trio of Taylor, Purcell and Milligan headed down the valley, up onto Borenacrow and down the Spink to Glendalough where their chauffer driven (Gerry Maguire) cadillac whisked them to their respective destinations.  All in all, a very satisfying time was had by everyone who finished the trek.  Indeed, Tommy Taylor, that grizzled 72-year-old veteran of 19 outings of this walk, declared the conditions to be the best he has ever encountered.  

Some more pictures:

Tommy Taylor at Billy Byrne's Gap Pat Lynch, veteran Wayfarer (and veterinarian) Michael Purcell Glenmalure, snow covered.

Report  from Tom Milligan.  Pictures: Tom Milligan, SeŠn Byrne.


The way this walk is organised.

As you will be aware, the Art O'Neill is scheduled to take place at midnight in January each year, starting outside Dublin Castle. This walk has been organised for members of the Irish Ramblers Club, but over recent years many non-members have tagged along and have always been welcome. However, due to the fact that non-members are not covered by club insurance we have decided that it would be unwise to invite all and sundry to participate with us again this year. If a serious accident were to occur to a non-member and they were not covered by insurance then questions would be asked about the practice I've adopted in previous years of casually inviting all comers. Nevertheless, if people do turn up and decide to follow us then we will be happy to have their company but they will do so at their own risk. Please be mindful of the following:

(1) This is NOT a led walk so you need to be able to navigate if the group moves ahead of you.

(2) There will be NO backup so you will need to bring your own food and have transport at the finish to bring you home. (Some of us will walk a further 7 miles to Glendalough to get the St. Kevin's bus home).

Participants need to assemble beforehand and be prepared to start at this time. Apart from a brief passage through some fields, the first 30k is along city streets and country roads to Ballynultagh Gap via Stone Cross. Depending on your preference, shoes, runners or boots can be worn up to this point. The remaining 22k is over rough mountain terrain to Barravore in Glenmalure, via Black Hill, Glenbride, Ballinagee Bridge, Art's Cross and Three Lakes. The total distance is 53k or 33 miles, with a total ascent of 1150m or 3600ft. This walk is not nearly as tough as the Lug Walk, which has more than twice the ascent. The time taken to cover the route is usually 14+ hrs depending on the weather conditions and the fitness of the participants.

This is not one of the usual 'supported' walks. In other words there is no entry fee, no backup in the area of food or transport, and each person or group must be capable of looking after themselves. This means that all food for the journey must be carried, and transport home from Barravore must be provided by participants. A map and compass, headtorch, reflective band (for the road walk), whistle, food and rain-gear should be carried by all. Some people will be walking a further seven miles to Glendalough at the end of the walk to get the bus home

Tom Milligan Ph. 086 0826857 and 2883312.

Report, 2002.

The annual Art O'Neill Walk took place at midnight on Friday night, 4th January 2002. Twenty-nine people gathered outside Dublin Castle despite dire warnings from the Met Office of forthcoming bouts of heavy rain and fog. Several people intending to do the Walk phoned me during that evening and decided to withdraw from the event because of this. However, the conditions under which the Walk took place were amongst the best we've encountered for some time. It wasn't until Templeogue that gentle drizzle prompted us to don our raingear and after a mile or so it became superfluous. Travelling towards the Stone Cross at Ballinascorney Gap we saw stars for the first time, although the half-moon continued to wear its yashmak. For the rest of the Walk it was mild temperatures and a sunny day equal to any seen in summertime. One gentleman and a lady withdrew before our first break at Athdown (the lady joined us again at Ballinagee Bridge) and soon after at Ballynultagh Gap another young man called it a day. Otherwise 26 people finished the Walk and, despite several cases of blisters and sore knees, all were pleased to have accomplished their goal. Three walkers, Tommy Taylor, Tom Milligan (the Methodist/Mormon Alliance) and Pat from Cork, continued on over Lugduff for a further 8k to Glendalough where their own transport awaited them in the person of Gerry Maguire. Special mention must be given to the volunteers who provided unexpected backup for the Walk. Ramblers Vincent and Angela Murphy, Nollaig and Finola Ceallaigh/McDonald, and Paddy Hackett with his army of Wayfarers all provided much-appreciated transport for our boots/bags to Athdown and plied us with soup and sandwiches on our arrival. Richard More-O'Ferrall provided the kitchen facilities of his excellent establishment at Jigsaw Cottage, Moyne, Co.Wicklow, by setting up 'Art's Kitchen' at Ballinagee Bridge when the weary walkers arrived there at 10am. Our thanks too to all those who provided transport home from Glenmalure. For an event where no Club funds were used, these volunteers who spent from their own pockets, without reimbursement, made all the difference between a great social event and a relentless slog. Many, many thanks to you all!

Tom Milligan

Historical Background, supplied by Tom Milligan

The escape of Art O'Neill and Red Hugh O'Donnell (6th Jan 1592)

Hugh Roe, the son of Hugh, son of Manus O'Donnell, remained in Dublin, in prison and in chains, after his first escape, to the winter of this year. One evening he and his companions, Henry and Art, the sons of O'Neill (John), before they had been brought into the refection house, took an advantage of the keepers, and knocked off their fetters. They afterwards went to the privy-house, having with them a very long rope, by the loops of which they let themselves down through the privy-house, until they reached the deep trench that was around the castle. They climbed the outer side, until they were on the margin of the trench. A certain faithful youth, who was in the habit of visiting them, and to whom they had communicated their secret, came to them at this time, and guided them. They then proceeded through the streets of the city, mixing with the people; and no one took more notice of them than of any one else, for they did not delay at that time to become acquainted with the people of the town; and the gates of the city were wide open. They afterwards proceeded by every intricate and difficult place, until they arrived upon the surface of the Red Mountain over which Hugh had passed in his former escape. The darkness of the night, and the hurry of their flight (from dread of pursuit), separated the eldest of them from the rest, namely, Henry O'Neill. Hugh was the greenest of them with respect to years, but not with respect to prowess. They were grieved at the separation of Henry from them; but, however, they proceeded onwards, their servant guiding them along. That night was snowing, so that it was not easy for them to walk, for they were without sufficient clothes or coverings, having left their outer garments behind them in the privy-house, through which they had escaped. Art was more exhausted by this rapid journey than Hugh, for he had been a long time in captivity, and had become very corpulent from long confinement in the prison. It was not so with Hugh; he had not yet passed the age of boyhood, and had not yet done growing and increasing at this period, and his pace and motion were quick and rapid. When he perceived Art had become feeble, and that his step was becoming inactive and slow, he requested him to place one arm upon his own shoulder, and the other upon that of the servant. In this manner they proceeded on their way until they had crossed the Red Mountain, after which they were weary and fatigued, and unable to help Art on any further; and as they were not able to take him with them, they stopped to rest under the shelter of a high rocky precipice which lay before them. On halting here, they sent the servant to bring the news to Glenmalur, where dwelt Fiagh, the son of Hugh O'Byrne, who was then at war with the English. This is a secure and impregnable valley; and many prisoners who escaped from Dublin were wont to resort to that valley, for they considered themselves secure there, until they could return to their own country. When the servant came into the presence of Fiagh, he delivered his message, and how he had left the youths who had escaped from the city, and stated that they would not be overtaken alive unless he sent them relief instantly. Fiagh immediately ordered some of his servants of trust (those in whom he had most confidence) to go to them, taking with them a man to carry food, and another to carry ale and beer. This was accordingly done, and they arrived at the place where the men were. Alas! unhappy and miserable was their condition on their arrival. Their bodies were covered over with white-bordered shrouds of hail-stones freezing around them on every side, and their light clothes and fine-threaded shirts too adhered to their skin; and their large shoes and leather thongs to their shins and feet; so that, covered as they were with the snow, it did not appear to the men who had arrived that they were human beings at all, for they found no life in their members, but just as if they were dead. They were raised by them from their bed, and they requested of them to take some of the meat and drink; but this they were not able to avail themselves of, for every drink they took they rejected again on the instant; so that Art at length died, and was buried in that place. As to Hugh, after some time, he retained the beer; and, after drinking it, his energies were restored, except the use of his two feet, for they were dead members, without feeling, swollen and blistered by the frost and snow. The men carried him to the valley which we have mentioned, and he was placed in a sequestered house, in a solitary part of a dense wood, where he remained under cure until a messenger came privately from his brother-in-law, the Earl O'Neill, to inquire after him. When the messenger arrived, he Hugh prepared to depart. It was difficult for him to undertake that journey, for his feet could not have been healed within the time, so that another person had to raise him on his horse, and to lift him from his horse, whenever he wished to alight. Fiagh dispatched a troop of horse with him, who accompanied him until he crossed the River Liffey, to protect him against the snares which were laid for him; for the English of Dublin had heard that Hugh was at Glenmalure, and had therefore posted guards on the shallow fords of the river, to prevent him and the prisoners who had escaped along with him from passing into Ulster. The youths who were along with Hugh were obliged to cross a difficuIt deep ford on the River Liffey, near the city of Dublin; and they proceeded on their way until they came to the green of the fortress, unperceived by the English. The people by whom he had been abandoned some time before, after his first escape, namely, Felim O'Toole and his brother, were amongst the troop who escorted him to this place; and they made friendship and amity with each other. They bade him farewell, and having given him their blessing, departed from him.

The First Escape of Red Hugh

Hugh Roe O'Donnell had now been in captivity in Dublin for the space of three years and three months. It was a cause of great distress of mind to him to be thus imprisoned; yet it was not for his own sake that he grieved, but for the sake of his country, his land, his friends, and kinsmen, who were in bondage throughout Ireland. He was constantly revolving in his mind the manner in which he might make his escape. This was not an easy matter for him, for he was confined in a closely-secured apartment every night in the castle until sunrise the next day. This castle was surrounded by a wide and very deep ditch, full of water, across which was a wooden bridge, directly opposite the door of the fortress; and within and without the door were stationed a stern party of Englishmen, closely guarding it, so that none might pass in or out without examination. There is, however, no guard whose vigilance may not some time or other be baffled. At the very end of winter, as Hugh and a party of his companions were together, in the beginning of the night, before they were put into the close cells in which they used to be every night, they took with them a very long rope to a window which was near them, and by means of the rope they let themselves down, and alighted upon the bridge that was outside the door of the fortress. There was a thick iron chain fastened to this door, by which one closed it when required; through this chain they drove a strong handful of a piece of timber, and thus fastened the door on the outside, so that they could not be immediately pursued from the fortress. There was a youth of Hugh's faithful people outside awaiting their escape, and he met them on coming out, with two well-tempered swords concealed under his garments; these he gave into the hand of Hugh, who presented one of them to a certain renowned warrior of Leinster, Art Kavanagh by name, who was a champion in battle, and a commander in conflict. As for the guards, they did not perceive the escape for some time; but when they took notice of it they advanced immediateIy to the door of the castle, for they thought that they should instantly catch them. Upon coming to the gate, they could not open it; whereupon they called over to them those who happened to be in the houses on the other side of the street, opposite the door of the castle. When these came at the call, and took the piece of timber out of the chain, and threw open the door for the people in the castle, who then set out, with a great number of the citizens, in pursuit of the youths who had escaped from them ; but this was fruitless, for they the fugitives had passed beyond the walls of the city before they were missed, for the gates of the regal city had been wide opens at the time; and they pursued their way across the face of the mountain which lay before them, namely, Sliabh Ruadh, being afraid to venture at all upon the public road, and never halted in their course until after a fatiguing journey and travelling, until they had crossed the Red mountain aforesaid. When, weary and fatigued, they entered a thick wood which lay in their way, where they remained until morning. They then attempted to depart, for they did not deem it safe to remain in the wood, from fear of being pursued; but Hugh was not able to keep pace with his companions, for his white-skinned and thin feet had been pierced by the furze of the mountain, for his shoes had fallen off, their seams having been loosened by the wet, which they did not till then receive. It was great grief to his companions that they could not bring him any further; and so they bade him farewell, and left him their blessing. He sent his servant to a certain gentleman of the noble tribes of the province of Leinster, who lived in a castle in the neighbourhood, to know whether he could afford them shelter or protection. His name was Felim O'Toole, and he was previously a friend to Hugh, as he thought, for he had gone to visit him on one occasion in his prison in Dublin, when they formed a mutual friendship with each other. The messenger proceeded to the place where Felirn was, and stated to him the embassy on which he came. Felim was glad at his arrival, and promised that he would do all the good he could for Hugh; but his friends and kindred did not allow him to conceal him, from fear of the English government. These learned that he was in the wood, as we have said, and they (i.e. the people who had heard that he was in the wood) went in search of him, and dispersed with their troops to track him. When it was clear to Felim that he Hugh would be discovered, he and his kinsmen resolved to seize upon him themselves, and bring him back to the Council in the city. This was accordingly done. When he Hugh arrived in Dublin, the Council were rejoiced at his return to them; for they made nothing or light of all the other prisoners and hostages that had escaped from them. He was again put into the same prison, and iron fetters were put upon him as tightly as possible; and they watched and guarded him as well as they could. His escape, thus attempted, and his recapture, became known throughout the land of Ireland, at which tidings a great gloom came over the Irish people.

(From the Annals of the Four Masters)

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